A common challenge faced by CNC machinists involves the machining of solid parts, specifically when it comes to achieving precise sharp corners. This difficulty arises due to the cylindrical shape of most CNC cutting tools, which inherently limits their ability to create acutely angled interior edges. Despite advancements in machining technologies and the capabilities of modern CNC machines, producing these detailed features remains a complex task.
But what exactly are we referring to when we discuss sharp inside corners in CNC machining? And what strategies can be employed to effectively address or circumvent these challenges? This article aims to demystify these questions, offering insights and guidance for efficient and accurate CNC machining that involves complex geometries.
Why We Recommend Avoiding Sharp Corners in CNC Machining?
Internal vs. External Sharp Corners
Sharp corners can manifest either internally or externally in CNC machined parts. An internal corner is formed within the part, while an external corner exists on the outer surface. These distinctions are essential as they affect machining processes differently.
One of the primary challenges related to sharp corner features, especially internally, is the complexity they introduce to the manufacturing process. Reduced tool access makes it difficult to create precise internal features. Additionally, the use of larger cutting tools can lead to deviations from the intended design.
Tool geometry plays a vital role in addressing corner-related challenges. Designers may encounter difficulties when dealing with these features. As a result, reliable CNC machining services often provide guidelines on optimizing part design to avoid issues associated with sharp inside corners.
One of the common challenges in machining sharp corners is the need for small CNC cutting tools. This reduction in tool size can lead to slower material removal and decreased production efficiency. It’s important to strike a balance between achieving the desired part geometry and maintaining efficiency.
Chip Recutting and Tool Engagement
When machining internal corners, changes in the direction of the cutting tool can result in chip recutting, excessive tool engagement, and difficulties in chip evacuation. These issues can negatively impact the surface finish and overall quality of the machined part.
Positioning and Workholding
Part geometry with sharp internal corners can pose challenges for secure and stable positioning. This can affect the efficiency and effectiveness of workholding solutions such as fixturing and clamping. Proper consideration of part design is essential to mitigate these issues.
Intricate internal features can increase CNC machining costs. Utilizing specialized tooling or unique techniques may become necessary to overcome these complexities, thereby contributing to higher production expenses. Implementing design adjustments that streamline part geometry can be a cost-effective strategy to control expenditures in CNC machining.
But Sharp Corners Are Not 100% Impossible to Machine
Sharp inside corners in CNC machining are difficult to machine, nevertheless, machining is possible. Common scenarios that need you to accommodate sharp corners include:
In machining operations that require absolute precision, especially in the automotive, aerospace, and medical industries, cutting sharp corners is important. While the feasibility of the machining operation depends on the machining method, material, and CNC design, incorporating an internal sharp corner radius can ensure the final product is functional.
In some products, the design intent can determine whether manufacturers opt to create sharp corners or rounded internal corners to achieve a specific look or feel. This intent depends on innovation or market demands and can guide the machining process.
A part’s functional requirement can determine whether manufacturers allow sharp corners in such products. Common examples of parts that require sharp internal corners are those that need assembling and those used in tool and die manufacturing.
Designing for CNC: Optimizing Sharp Corners
Optimizing sharp corners in CNC machining is achievable by early design consideration, proper use of non-CNC and a CNC process, and understanding how both affect the machining cost and practicality.
Integrating CNC Machining Considerations in the Early Design Phase
Integrating CNC machining considerations in the early design phase will enhance angle management, boost accuracy, curtail expenses, and streamline the machining workflow so you can achieve sharp internal features without compromising machinability.
Cutting tool geometry such as tool corner radii and length can determine the feasibility of the machining operation. For precise results in both internal and external corners, especially when dealing with deeper inside corners, smaller radii tools and longer tools are often preferred.
The properties of the material used, such as hardness, ductility, and machinability, significantly influence the possibility of incorporating sharp corners and selecting appropriate tools. Soft and thermally unstable materials are prone to deformation due to the heat generated during machining.
Developing a well-thought-out toolpath strategy and optimizing feeds and speeds based on the material and cutting tool are essential steps. This helps prevent issues such as material deformation, tool deflection, and tool wear during machining.
The machining tolerance required dictates choices concerning materials, CNC machines (such as CNC lathes and mills), and cutting tools. Opting for a rigid CNC machine helps reduce vibrations and enhances precision, making it more attainable to create sharp internal features.
How to Design Parts for CNC Machining with Sharp Corners
When designing parts that incorporate sharp corners, it’s essential to consider both the type of sharp corners and the limitations inherent in CNC machining, particularly the cutting tool’s cylindrical geometry.
When working with external sharp corners, it’s advisable to avoid fillets, as they can be easily machined by cutting tools. Instead, specify a corner radius of at least 0.1 mm. This prevents tool breakage and ensures a smoother toolpath for increased tool continuity.
To further enhance machining efficiency, adjust the corner radius to align with the diameter of the CNC bits being used. This optimization minimizes the stress on the cutting tool during machining. Maintaining a general tolerance of ±0.1 mm for overall dimensions is recommended for precision.
Additionally, reduce the corner radius to match the CNC bits diameter. For extremely sharp corners, you can use a small fillet with an internal corner radius of 0.2mm to reduce the stress during machining. Specify a general tolerance of ±0.1 mm for overall dimensions.
In scenarios where designing parts with sharp corners for CNC machining proves impractical, it’s worthwhile to explore alternative manufacturing methods. Options such as CNC routing, EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining), end milling, or employing techniques like undercut machining can be viable solutions.
The Interplay Between Design Complexity, Machining Costs, and Practicality
Generally, complex CNC designs that require sharp inside corners will incur higher CNC machining costs due to the need for specialized CNC tooling, techniques, and expert operators.
These can manifest in several ways. For example, sharp corners with smaller inner radii will require cutting tools with smaller radii. However, such tools will increase machining costs and machining time.
Another example is a part with a deep inside sharp corner which necessitates using a long CNC tool. On the one hand, this will increase the machining cost as manufacturers must make the tool using a compatible rapid tooling process. On the other hand, it will lead to tool deflection or breakage and chip removal issues.
The practicality of manufacturing a part also depends on the design complexity and factors in the incurred cost. Experts can evaluate complex designs with sharp corners using Design for Manufacturability. This will assess the importance of sharp corners concerning the part function. When the presence of sharp corners does not affect the part’s function, it can be avoided.
Practicality can also be in terms of the incurred machining cost. In situations where incorporating sharp corners will increase the machining cost, expert machines can recommend avoiding the sharp internal feature, using other methods, or using alternatives such as T-bone fillets or Dog-bone fillets.
Material Considerations for Machining Sharp Corners
This section discusses how the type of material and properties such as hardness and ductility can affect the part’s internal sharp corner radius and overall machining process.
Types of Materials Commonly Used in CNC Machining
The three common CNC machining materials categories are metals, plastics, and composite.
Metals such as aluminum, steel, and brass are common CNC materials due to their hardness (<50HRC), and intrinsic properties like strength and durability. Some materials further have special properties such as aluminum with its lightweight and corrosion-resistance.
Plastics such as ABS, Delrin, and Nylon are versatile CNC machining material options popular with the process due to their ease of machining and cost-effectiveness. Furthermore, they are affordable, and lightweight, with some exhibiting high stiffness and excellent dimensional stability.
Composites are made up of two materials each with distinct properties. Common composite materials used in CNC machining include Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) known for their high strength-to-weight ratio and Fiberglass known for its strength, flexibility, and corrosion resistance.
How Material Choice Affects Sharp Corner Machining
The choice of material will affect the quality of the CNC machined part or the ability to use the process effectively.
To achieve precise internal sharp corners when machining hard metals such as stainless steel and titanium, it’s essential to utilize specialized, long-lasting tools and adjust cutting speeds to match the specific material.
Selecting a metal with sufficient ductility is crucial to avoid deformation and stress when machining sharp corners. The right choice of material ensures a smoother and more precise machining process.
This is peculiar to parts made using plastics especially those with lower melting points. You can successfully create parts with sharp corners with such plastics by controlling the cutting speed, feed rate, and other machining parameters to prevent overheating and deformation.
Certain plastics display dimensional variations at varying temperatures, potentially impacting machining processes. Understanding these material stability characteristics is crucial for ensuring consistent and accurate CNC machining operations.
When working with abrasive composite materials like carbon fibers, it’s important to anticipate tool wear, especially in sharp corner machining. Consequently, this often necessitates the utilization of specialized tooling to maintain machining effectiveness and precision.
Machining composites with layered structures demands careful consideration of layer orientation, as it can significantly impact the precision of cutting sharp corners. Operators should pay close attention to this aspect for optimal results.
How to Machine Sharp Inside Corners If Necessary
When necessary, you can use the following methods to make sharp inside corners in CNC machining:
Method 1: Using a Ball-Nose End Mill
A ball-nose end mill has a small spherical tip that makes it suitable for creating small inside corner radii. For external parts, the cutting tool’s round geometry also ensures that the CNC machined part has no sharp edges.
Ball nose end mill is a common tool in the aerospace and medical device manufacturing industries. It requires extreme dexterity and might not be a good choice for extremely sharp corners. Hence, its use must be after the consideration of the project-specific requirements.
Method 2: Using a Corner Relief End Mill
A corner relief end mill is designed for achieving precise internal elements, frequently employed in mold fabrication. Its refined edges facilitate the formation of acute internal details while mitigating the risk of chipping. This makes it an advantageous choice for CNC materials susceptible to chipping or when aiming to construct elaborate details. However, machinists need to weigh the design’s complexity, the material’s attributes, and the specifics of the corner features before selection.
Method 3: Using a Grinding Wheel
Using a grinding wheel requires a skilled operator, especially in parts with very tight tolerance. The method involves using a grinding wheel (coated with abrasive particles) to remove material and create precise contours.
The method is versatile, suitable for different materials, and compatible with parts with tight tolerance. However, challenges with the process include over-grinding which can reduce accuracy and compatibility with extremely sharp corners.
Method 4: Using EDM
Electrical discharge machining involves using electric sparks to remove material from a workpiece. There are two types suitable you can use to machine sharp corners and they are die-sink EDM and wire EDM.
In Die-Sink EDM, the process involves “sinking” a custom-made die onto the workpiece, resulting in a cutting action. The die, which has a negative form mirroring the feature geometry, is an external component ideally suited for achieving precise sharp corners during machining.
Wire EDM employs a thin wire to follow feature contours during material cutting. With its slender profile (<0.1 mm diameter), it excels at machining sharp internal corners, achieving radii as small as 0.05 mm.
Despite its corner-machining capabilities, Wire EDM has limitations. Manufacturers may avoid it due to slower processing speeds, complexity, compatibility solely with electrically conductive materials, and the potential for suboptimal surface finishes.
Method 5: CNC Routing
CNC routing is a versatile machining process with a high level of precision for 2D work made from materials like plastic, wood, and composites. It involves using a CNC router with a small router bit diameter with programmed cutting paths for consistent and repeatable results.
While CNC routing is effective for many applications, achieving extremely sharp corners might be limited. The cutting tools, while precise, may not match the sharpness achievable with certain specialized methods.
Machinists should assess the specific requirements of the project, considering factors such as material type, design complexity, and corner sharpness.
Method 6: Using Laser Cutting
Laser cutting involves using a laser beam to cut a workpiece. It is a non-contact process better suited for workpieces with 2D designs made from thin plates. It is very economical due to the presence of many laser-cutting shops.
Laser cutting cannot achieve perfect square corners because the laser has a diameter that produces a kerf. Nevertheless, the produced radius is small and negligible.
The disadvantages of the process are its surface finish and accuracy. While it is possible to achieve tolerances as tight as +/- 0.005″, the machined surface is rougher compared to machined surfaces necessitating additional processing.
To improve the quality of the machined sharp corners using the methods above, CNC machinists should apply the following tips:
Use a Sharp Cutting Tool: Regardless of the methods used, the CNC cutting tool should be very sharp for a cleaner cut and precise corners.
Use a Cutting Fluid: Using a cutting fluid will increase machining efficiency, and prevent the buildup of heat during cutting which enhances tool life.
Make Multiple Passes: Making multiple passes will improve accuracy and surface finish and is beneficial for making precision sharp insider corners.
Opting for the ideal machining method to achieve sharp internal corners becomes effortless when you partner with a trusted CNC machining service like RapidDirect. Our seasoned experts possess extensive experience and can aptly advise on the most suitable machining approach based on factors such as material characteristics, design intricacy, precision prerequisites, and cost considerations.
Are There Sharp Corner Alternatives?
When it comes to achieving sharp inside corners in CNC machining, an effective alternative is to incorporate an undercut, especially in the production of parts intended for assembly. Two popular undercut alternatives used by machinists for sharp corners in machining are T-bone and Dog fillets.
Creating a T-bone fillet involves allowing the cutting tool to create and extend a corner in one inside corner of the workpiece by at least half the cutter diameter.
This alternative is the easier method because does not require calculations. As a result, they are common when there is a need for proper mating of parts. Nevertheless, they do not have aesthetic appeal and they can be problematic in complex design.
Dog Bone Fillets
Creating a dog bone fillet involves using a cutting tool to create a corner at the point where two sides meet. Creating a dog bone fillet results in a high rate of material removal and requires careful planning which can increase machining time and cost.
Unlike the T-bone fillets, the machining process is more complex. However, it offers better aesthetic appeal making them ideal for parts that require significant visual appearance. Furthermore, they are more flexible and suitable for complex CNC designs.
Experience the Precision of RapidDirect CNC Machining Services for Your Sharp Corners Needs
Machining sharp corners is challenging as it requires well-experienced CNC machinists or CNC machining service providers. This article discussed how to avoid/accommodate them. However, getting the best of the process involves outsourcing to a reputable CNC machining provider.
You can experience precision, quality, and speedy CNC machining services at RapidDirect as we offer unparalleled expertise in the process for different industries. We provide high-quality and precise customized components using state-of-the-art facilities at a competitive price.
Our teams of engineers are well experienced in every facet of CNC machining, offering recommendations for the perfect product. Let us get started on your project today!